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Articles by Ray Thompson, one of SLH’s most experienced coaches, to assist your training. Very interesting reading!

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Very interesting reading!","Icon":null,"Creator":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"CreationTime":"05/07/2019 16:49","TopicCount":10,"Tags":[],"URL":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Cms/Spaces/TRAINING/Training+Advice","LastComment":{"ID":0,"Index":0,"User":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"ImageUrl":null,"Comment":null,"CreationTime":null,"IsEdited":false,"EditTime":null,"InReplyTo":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"IsDeleted":false,"DeleteReason":null,"DeletedBy":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"LikeCount":0,"LikesDescription":"","Likes":[],"LikedByMe":false,"HasBeenRead":false,"Replies":[],"CanEdit":false,"CanModerate":false,"CanReply":false}},"SubForums":[],"Topics":[{"ID":122,"Name":"Food for Thought","Creator":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"CreationTime":"05/07/2019 16:53","CommentCount":1,"Tags":[],"IsPinned":false,"IsLocked":true,"URL":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Cms/Spaces/TRAINING/Training+Advice/Food+for+Thought","HasUnreadComments":true,"FirstUnreadCommentIndex":0,"LastComment":{"ID":50,"Index":0,"User":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"ImageUrl":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Client/Images/Mugshots/MJames.jpeg","Comment":"\u003cp\u003e\u003cem\u003eRay Thompson February 2010\u003c/em\u003e\u003cbr\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eHow sure are you that you’re essential body mineral levels are as they should be? Is it possible that your running, or other vigorous exercise regimes are reducing your calcium, potassium, magnesium or zinc levels and are not having a deleterious on body function? These are questions about which you should not worry unduly, but they should come to mind and be thought about.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eIf you run you will sweat. If you sweat you will lose minerals. If you did not sweat your body would have a temperature problem.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eYou will sweat even in the coldest weather conditions. There may be a bit less washing but sweat you will.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eIt has been estimated that an athlete in fairly heavy training will lose between seven and fourteen pints of sweat per week. This will vary according to weather conditions.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThis sweating regime will result in mineral depletion, with four basic minerals; calcium, potassium, magnesium and zinc being lost. The intelligent runner will try to ensure that these minerals are replaced. A normal diet may not do this and a junk diet certainly will not suffice.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eTo ensure that \u003cstrong\u003ecalcium\u003c/strong\u003e is replaced milk, cheese, broccoli, leafy vegetables, nuts, peas and lentils will provide. If there is a reliance on milk the danger is that there will be a lack of magnesium. Calcium absorption can be inhibited by too much bran and the phosphorous found in soft drinks. In addition too much fat and protein will have the same effect.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThere is research evidence that chronic shin soreness can be attributed to calcium deficiency. There is a real problem for young athletes in that too many soft drinks will inhibit calcium absorption and such athletes are nearly always in the position of bone growth.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe heart muscle when running works overtime and a lack of \u003cstrong\u003epotassium\u003c/strong\u003e can affect the efficiency with which the heart muscle operates.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSome of the symptoms of a potassium deficiency is muscle fatigue (or more fatigue than usual) poor appetite, constipation, muscle cramps, and mental apathy. That is not the apathy you get from watching Eastenders and Newsnight.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWhen exercising in temperatures in excess of 80f it is recommended that you should drink lots of pure orange juice. Steve Ovetts collapse at the 1984 Olympics was attributed to a lack of potassium.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSo, to ensure your potassium levels are satisfactory plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables and whole grains.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eMagnesium\u003c/strong\u003e has the important role of distributing calcium, potassium, and sodium. Manifestation of magnesium deficiency can be muscle cramps, twitching and muscle spasm especially in the feet and hands. There has also been a suggestion that low magnesium levels are associated with pre menstrual tension. A remedy for this has been offered by ensuring that vitamin B6 is included in the diet.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eOne piece of bad news is that alcohol depletes magnesium levels.\u003cbr\u003eGood sources of magnesium are nuts, soya beans, leafy vegetables, whole grains and hard tap water. So forget the bottled water and save some money.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eZinc\u003c/strong\u003e is seen as so clinically important that it has been suggested that all serious runners should be tested for signs of zinc deficiency at regular intervals. A deficit in zinc will almost certainly reduce muscle strength and endurance.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSome effects of inadequate zinc are nail white spots, reduced immunity to infection, skin disorders, hair loss above the normal, long duration injuries, poor night vision, impaired taste and smell.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eA high fibre diet and iron supplements are also associated with the non absorption of zinc. Growth spurts, puberty and pregnancy make strong demands on zinc and a high protein diet will demand a high zinc requirement.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eFortunately zinc can be found in all forms of nuts and natural raw food. In addition it also comes in muscle meats, split peas, egg yolk, parsley, potatoes, garlic, carrots, clams chicken, and much more besides.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSo unless you are on a very specialised diet you should not be short of zinc and should not require a supplement. However, it is a good idea to check on what you are consuming too make sure that you are getting the foods in enough quantity for zinc replenishment. A reliance on refined food has been seen as a possible problem and might lead to a shortage of zinc.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWhile a ‘normal’ diet should keep you topped up with essential minerals you shouldas runners see yourselves as vulnerable to mineral deficiencies through the process of more sweating than the ordinary Joanna and Joe. Always go for diet replenishment rather than supplements. Should you for some reason need to have a specialised diet always get professional advice that takes into account your exercise regime.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eLastly keeping an eating diary is as important, if not more important than keeping a training diary.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThere are two things that I feel serious athletes should do and that is to have regular blood tests that could indicate whether there are any causes for concern and aregular visit to a chiropodist. The disregard that runners give to their piggy’s hasalways struck me as remarkable.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eHappy eating, running and sweating\u003c/p\u003e","CreationTime":"05 July 2019 16:53","IsEdited":false,"EditTime":null,"InReplyTo":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"IsDeleted":false,"DeleteReason":null,"DeletedBy":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"LikeCount":0,"LikesDescription":"","Likes":[],"LikedByMe":false,"HasBeenRead":false,"Replies":[],"CanEdit":false,"CanModerate":false,"CanReply":false},"CanAdmin":false},{"ID":121,"Name":"Day v Evening","Creator":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"CreationTime":"05/07/2019 16:53","CommentCount":1,"Tags":[],"IsPinned":false,"IsLocked":true,"URL":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Cms/Spaces/TRAINING/Training+Advice/Day+v+Evening","HasUnreadComments":true,"FirstUnreadCommentIndex":0,"LastComment":{"ID":49,"Index":0,"User":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"ImageUrl":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Client/Images/Mugshots/MJames.jpeg","Comment":"\u003cp\u003e\u003cem\u003eRay Thompson Jan 2010\u003c/em\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cem\u003eHave you ever wondered why your evening workouts seem easier than morning workouts?\u003c/em\u003e\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eIt has been claimed by athletes for many years that training late in the day seemed easier that an early training session.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eMany athletes will have noticed or recorded that their heart rate seemed higher at night and lower in the morning even with an identical workout.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWhile a physiologic explanation has not been forthcoming the Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences at Liverpool John Moores University has established that maximum‘heart rates and sub-maximal heart rates were lower in the morning’. From this the suggestion is that while it could seem that with morning heart rates lower then people will be more efficient and thus exercise easier- this is not the case.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eA review published this year showed what an examination of athletic world records and best performances show that these have happened in late or early evening.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eA visiting professor at the University of Texas Health Sciences Centre in Houston, Dr M Smolensky who is an expert in chronobiology – the study of the body clock; considers that in’ terms of athletic performance, strength, power and speed are at their lowest point in the early hours of the morning’. Exercise taken later in the day see stronger and more flexible muscles and the cardio-vascular system more efficient. The body seems to be designed to generate and tolerate a higher heart rate later in the day.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAll this seems to add up to planning workouts for late afternoon or early evening. Dr Smolensky argues that this is especially relevant for athletes who are working out three, four or more times a week. Also, that you are better off having a heart attack later in the day!.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSo, if you have ever wondered why morning runs seem harder than evening runs there does seem to be a physio logical explanation. This may seem to run counter to the obvious, which is, that the body should be fresher and less tired in the morning. Also, a further question arises that if it is harder to train in the morning should not the training benefit be greater?\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWhat the research suggests is that the same benefit is obtained with less effort if training takes place later in the day.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003ePerhaps in evolutionary terms our forebears lazed around or slept late in the morning and did all the hunting and gathering in the late part of the day and the biological clock adjusted accordingly. It may also be that the body takes time to recover from sleep or that somehow\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eenergy systems developed to overcome natural tiredness that could occur during the course of an active day. Or maybe it just had something to do with daylight or no breakfast.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAnyway, what may well be relevant for athletes training twice a day is that early day workouts should be formulated to take the findings into account. High VO2 max and gym work may well be best taken later in the day with aerobic work in late morning. This is somewhat akin to undertaking technique work always with the wind behind you when you need to concentrate on technical skills and drills. The reason being obvious but often either ignored or not known by coaches.\u003c/p\u003e","CreationTime":"05 July 2019 16:53","IsEdited":false,"EditTime":null,"InReplyTo":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"IsDeleted":false,"DeleteReason":null,"DeletedBy":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"LikeCount":0,"LikesDescription":"","Likes":[],"LikedByMe":false,"HasBeenRead":false,"Replies":[],"CanEdit":false,"CanModerate":false,"CanReply":false},"CanAdmin":false},{"ID":120,"Name":"Training Notes: VO2 max","Creator":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"CreationTime":"05/07/2019 16:52","CommentCount":1,"Tags":[],"IsPinned":false,"IsLocked":true,"URL":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Cms/Spaces/TRAINING/Training+Advice/Training+Notes+VO2+max","HasUnreadComments":true,"FirstUnreadCommentIndex":0,"LastComment":{"ID":48,"Index":0,"User":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"ImageUrl":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Client/Images/Mugshots/MJames.jpeg","Comment":"\u003cp\u003e\u003cem\u003eRay Thompson Dec 2007\u003c/em\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAt training days you will hear terms like VO2 max, threshold runs, aerobic threshold, OBLA (onset of lactic acid) cardio vascular system and so on. What follows are some explanations.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eYour VO2 max is the shorthand term used for Maximal Oxygen Uptake or Maximum aerobic power. As such VO2 max is the standard measure of aerobic fitness and‘represents the maximum amount of oxygen that can be removed from circulating blood and used by the working tissues during a specified period’. For a fuller explanation you should refer to the book Training Distance Runners by Martin and Coe.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eVO2 max is determined by heart rate, stroke volume and the rate of extraction of O2 from the blood. It is quantified in millilitres of oxygen consumed per min adjusted for body size.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eA test to establish an athletes VO2 max with precision requires an exercise laboratory test. To gauge training effect on fitness levels and feed out genetic influences requires regular testing.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eA non laboratory test to establish maximum heart rate can be used with a heart monitor. A flat out run is made for three minutes. This is repeated three times with full recovery. An average of the maximum heart rate is taken for the three runs.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe greatest fitness gains will come from working at 80% plus of VO2 max. This would apply to a fully trained senior athlete.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eIn determining your effort on distance runs and to obtain training benefit you should be working at or near your aerobic threshold. This will be in the region of 65% - 70% VO2 max.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eTo determine what this would translate into in terms of heart rate (bpm) take maximum heart rate (to be determined) say this 200bpm (likely to be greater) then multiply age in years by 0.8 (women 0.7) 17X0.8 = 13.6. Deduct 13.6 from 200bpm = 186.4 bpm. Take 70% of 186.4 to provide a heart rate that should provide a modest increase in VO2 max. What this means is that distance runs should be at or better than 130 bpm. You can see that establishing your maximum heart rate is important.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eTo obtain full benefit from your training the question of whether you are working at a level to improve your VO2 max is critical. Anything less will be just a recovery run. You should have at least two threshold runs and one threshold plus session per week.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eYour first task is to establish maximum heart rate; work out your VO2 max, and then your ventilatory threshold, and then on a distance run what your average bpm is. Good luck.\u003c/p\u003e","CreationTime":"05 July 2019 16:52","IsEdited":false,"EditTime":null,"InReplyTo":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"IsDeleted":false,"DeleteReason":null,"DeletedBy":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"LikeCount":0,"LikesDescription":"","Likes":[],"LikedByMe":false,"HasBeenRead":false,"Replies":[],"CanEdit":false,"CanModerate":false,"CanReply":false},"CanAdmin":false},{"ID":119,"Name":"To Run a Marathon","Creator":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"CreationTime":"05/07/2019 16:52","CommentCount":1,"Tags":[],"IsPinned":false,"IsLocked":true,"URL":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Cms/Spaces/TRAINING/Training+Advice/To+Run+a+Marathon","HasUnreadComments":true,"FirstUnreadCommentIndex":0,"LastComment":{"ID":47,"Index":0,"User":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"ImageUrl":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Client/Images/Mugshots/MJames.jpeg","Comment":"\u003cp\u003eThe sessions shown below can be adjusted in terms of distance and pace to accommodate the level of starting fitness. To estimate a sensible race pace for the marathon take a good personal 10K time and multiply by 5.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eFor example a 10K time of 35 mins would see an overall time of 2hrs 55 mins. Using a half marathon time multiply by 2 and add on 10 mins.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eDepending on the level of fitness and once a race pace had been decided, a 10 mile run should be undertaken once a week. A mile should be added every two weeks up to a distance of 20 miles.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe following examples show a mile pace and a finishing time.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e6 mins per mile = 2hrs 37 mins\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e7 mins per mile = 3hrs 03 mins\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e8mins per mile = 3hrs 30mins\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e9mins per mile = 3hrs 58mins\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAlan Storey a former National Coach for the marathon suggests that there are four key sessions that should be included in a training schedule and done on a regular basis. Each session should be followed by a recovery day of very easy paced running for 30/45 mins and done preferably on grass. \u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSESSION ONE\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eRun at the speed required to reach the marathon target. If the target time is 2hrs 30 mins the mile pace will be 5.48, if 3hrs 30 mins then an 8 min mile pace. The intention should be to reach an 18-mile run at this target pace. Again, this should be a building process beginning with 10- mile runs or less but eventually reaching 18 miles.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSESSION TWO\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eRun for a period equal to the estimated total time to run the marathon. If the aim is a 3-hour race then the run should be for 3 hours. A build up routine would be to begin with a one hour run adding 10 mins each week. Over a 12-week period the three hours would be reached. This should be continued for a further 6 weeks. The use of a heart rate monitor using the formula shown later can be used to determine a sensible pace for this session.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSESSION THREE\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eDevelop a repetition session where a total of 10K are run. The pace for the session should be at 10K race pace. For example if the 10K race pace is 35 mins then the session would be 13 X 800m in 2 mins 48 secs with 1 min recovery, or 8X1200 in 4 mins 12 secs with 1.5 mins recovery. To calculate this divide your 10K time by 1000, then by 100. This will give you a time for 100m then multiply up for 800m, 1000m, or 1200m. This session will produce a higher heart rate than that required for the marathon but will provide a physiological and psychological cushion for the additional effort required in the race situation.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSESSION FOUR\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eA hill schedule. The hill should be moderate i.e. not too steep not too flat. The session should equal 6 miles up hill. The return is the recovery and should be walked or jogged depending on fitness level. A hill of 800m is ideal for this session. Again, a lower mileage should be used to begin with eventually reaching 6 miles.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eA key feature of these sessions is that should the target times fall below previous then an extra day of easy paced running should be taken.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003ePRE RACE PROCEDURE\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe ten days before the marathon should see a reduction in training of at least two thirds with no training activity for the 48 hours prior to the race. Training during this wind down period should contain some repetition work 25% faster than the target marathon time. This ten-day period will allow the body to go into semi resting mode recovering to some extent from the strenuous training programme. Carbohydrate loading to build up muscle glycogen stores requires a 15 mile slow run 7 days before the race followed by a 24 hour fast taking in only quality water. After the fasting period 700 grams of carbohydrate should be consumed daily.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eWHAT IS A GOOD RACING WEIGHT?\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eA weight statistician Dr Stillman uses the following formula to determine the average weight of a person living in the Western world. For a man allocate 110lbs for the first five feet in height then 5.5 lbs for every inch thereafter. This would see a 6ft average non-active male weighing 176 lbs (12st 8lbs). For an average non-active woman use 100lbs for the first 5ft in height then 5lbs for every inch thereafter.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eRunners should come in under these averages and if not, but nevertheless on a good training programme, should examine their dietary intake. Calories in and calories out is the determining factor. Between 3000 and 4000 calories a day is required to maintain body function. Job or household requirements should be taken into account when using calories as a measure. It is estimated that one hour of moderate running uses about 1000 calories. If 5000 calories a day are going in then there is likely to be a weight gain and weight for a runner is a handicap.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eIt is not eating less but eating non-fat food that is the answer. A gram of carbohydrate or protein produces 4 calories, a gram of fat 9 calories. Butter has 23.4 grams of fat per oz, which equals 210.6 calories. Fat intake restricted to 50 grams a day will see a weight loss as of course will an increase in running mileage.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eIt has been estimated that running a marathon in energy terms consumes a days total food intake. This deficit will be made up very quickly. Dr George Sheehan has suggested another measure of an ideal weight for an endurance runner. This is to allocate 2lbs for every inch in height. Thus a man 5ft6ins should weigh 126lbs (9 stone). Formulas such as these should always be seen as guides and not as absolutes. Everyone is different by gender, age, and by experience.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe one positive thing is that you do not want to carry any more weight than is necessary when running for 26miles plus. As mentioned previously heart rate supplies essential information of effort and energy expenditure.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eVO2 Max\u003c/strong\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eImprovement in physical performance is associated with an enhancement of what has been labelled by physiologists as VO2 max. This is the standard measure of what is called aerobic fitness and indicates the maximum amount of oxygen that can be taken from circulating blood and used by active tissues for a specific period. It is measured in millilitres of oxygen consumed per minute adjusted for body size.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eA sedentary male would show a reading of 35 to 50 ml/kg/min. An elite runner would be something in excess of 70ml/kg/min. Physiologists estimate that the greatest fitness gains come from work at between 80/100% of VO2 max.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eTo calculate VO2 max it is necessary to know the maximum possible heart rate. Laboratory testing uses a treadmill for this assessment. A formula can be used which it is claimed has a 0.8 correlation with a laboratory test. For a 25yr old female assume a maximum heart rate of 209 beats per minute (bpm) minus 0.7 for each year of age e.g. 209 minus 25 X 0.7 = (17.5) therefore 209 minus 17.5 =191.5 bpm.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAssuming 80% of the heart rate for what is called the lactate threshold run would require a consistent effort of 153 bpm. It is claimed that this would be the minimum for a modest increase in VO2 max.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eFor a 25yr old male athlete take a maximum heart rate of 214 bpm and a minus of 0.8 for each year of age and the example would be 214 minus 25 X 0.8 = (20) therefore 214-20 = 194bpm. 80% of this would require a consistent effort of 155bpm.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThere is some controversy on maximum heart rate with some physiologists claiming that using this formula a maximum heart rate of 200bpm is more realistic. The number and duration of lactate threshold runs undertaken should be a subject of discussion between the athlete and the coach and would obviously relate to an athletes level of fitness and experience.\u003c/p\u003e","CreationTime":"05 July 2019 16:52","IsEdited":false,"EditTime":null,"InReplyTo":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"IsDeleted":false,"DeleteReason":null,"DeletedBy":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"LikeCount":0,"LikesDescription":"","Likes":[],"LikedByMe":false,"HasBeenRead":false,"Replies":[],"CanEdit":false,"CanModerate":false,"CanReply":false},"CanAdmin":false},{"ID":118,"Name":"The Mind Body Connection","Creator":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"CreationTime":"05/07/2019 16:52","CommentCount":1,"Tags":[],"IsPinned":false,"IsLocked":true,"URL":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Cms/Spaces/TRAINING/Training+Advice/The+Mind+Body+Connection","HasUnreadComments":true,"FirstUnreadCommentIndex":0,"LastComment":{"ID":46,"Index":0,"User":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"ImageUrl":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Client/Images/Mugshots/MJames.jpeg","Comment":"\u003cp\u003e\u003cem\u003eRay Thompson Jan 2008\u003c/em\u003e\u003cbr\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThat there is a relationship between mind and body is still puzzling but it has been established that physical symptoms can result from mental processes for example various psychosomatic conditions.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAn idea buzzing around sport is whether this relationship can be used and whether physicaleffort and pain can be separated or modified by what is called ‘dissociation’. Taking an exampleof say endurance training or racing you can try to by-pass the brain or pain barrier by using a mantra or distracting the mind by say naming all your friends or relatives by alphabetical order. Paula Radcliffe is on record as saying that at the New York marathon on the point of being overtaken by her great rival Grete Wami she engaged with a mantra repeating ‘I love you, Isla’to keep her rhythm going and bring her to victory. Isla of course being the name of her new baby.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eVisualisation is another mental activity most often associated with technical events but this can be tried with distance events. You could picture yourself overtaking, winning, getting the medal and so on.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAnother thing is to imagine that the hill you are running up is flat and that you adjust your running style accordingly.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eTwo other tips. You should take your pulse rate every morning and any increase of say five beats per minute is a tell tale sign that you could be over training and that your body is not recovering sufficiently. It could also signal a coming cold. This will suggest a cut back in training and some extra rest.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAlways after a training session or race consume some carbohydrate within 45 mins. This time slot is very important in terms of take up as the body is at its most receptive during this period. A favourite among athletes is a fig roll which is packed with carbohydrate. An apple will also suffice.\u003c/p\u003e","CreationTime":"05 July 2019 16:52","IsEdited":false,"EditTime":null,"InReplyTo":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"IsDeleted":false,"DeleteReason":null,"DeletedBy":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"LikeCount":0,"LikesDescription":"","Likes":[],"LikedByMe":false,"HasBeenRead":false,"Replies":[],"CanEdit":false,"CanModerate":false,"CanReply":false},"CanAdmin":false},{"ID":117,"Name":"Warming Down - Myth or Real?","Creator":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"CreationTime":"05/07/2019 16:51","CommentCount":1,"Tags":[],"IsPinned":false,"IsLocked":true,"URL":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Cms/Spaces/TRAINING/Training+Advice/Warming+Down++Myth+or+Real","HasUnreadComments":true,"FirstUnreadCommentIndex":0,"LastComment":{"ID":45,"Index":0,"User":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"ImageUrl":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Client/Images/Mugshots/MJames.jpeg","Comment":"\u003cp\u003e\u003cem\u003eRay Thompson June 2013\u003c/em\u003e\u003cbr\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eHow many athletes; certainly young athletes have heard from coaches the mantra or sacred text – ‘you must warm down after vigorous exercise otherwise you will have sore muscles’.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eIt is claimed that a jog; and some gentle stretching will prevent muscle soreness and will speed up physiological recovery and allow for a next day workout. The justification for this procedure is that after exercise all sorts of nasty residues remain pooled in muscles and result in so called muscle soreness. Whether this is relieved by warming down is being questioned by recent scientific scrutiny.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eReported in the New York Times International is a reference to a study published in 2012 in the Journal of Human Kinetics. A group of 36 active adults were subjected to a vigorous programme of forward lunges holding barbells. This was designed to produce guaranteed next day muscle soreness in a group of untrained people.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eDivided into three groups the volunteers were subjected, one to a 20 minute stationary bicycle ; one to just a stationary bicycle warm down and the third group did neither a .\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe result measured the following day through a pain threshold test showed the warm up group to be pain free; the warm down and the control group both experienced muscle soreness. It appeared that cooling down offered no pain relief.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eA similar experiment in 2007 undertaken at Neuroscience Research Australia produced very much the same result with a positive statement by senior research fellow, Rob Herbert, claiming that available data ‘quite strongly suggests that a cool-down procedure does not reduce post exercise soreness’\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSo it seems that a cool down can feel nice, perhaps a relief. However, a short walk will restore blood flow to the brain – that will have been deprived somewhat if the exercise has been particularly heavy. This is demonstrated when athletes are seen to bend over at the end of a race. This is an autonomic reaction to a decreased blood supply to the brain.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eIf a full blooded cool down is done it will not do any harm but it seems that it is something that you can do without, with no side effects. Time perhaps best spent talking to your coach on the benefits or otherwise obtained from the training session or extra time in the bar.\u003c/p\u003e","CreationTime":"05 July 2019 16:51","IsEdited":false,"EditTime":null,"InReplyTo":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"IsDeleted":false,"DeleteReason":null,"DeletedBy":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"LikeCount":0,"LikesDescription":"","Likes":[],"LikedByMe":false,"HasBeenRead":false,"Replies":[],"CanEdit":false,"CanModerate":false,"CanReply":false},"CanAdmin":false},{"ID":116,"Name":"OSGOOD-SCHLATTERS DISEASE","Creator":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"CreationTime":"05/07/2019 16:51","CommentCount":1,"Tags":[],"IsPinned":false,"IsLocked":true,"URL":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Cms/Spaces/TRAINING/Training+Advice/OSGOODSCHLATTERS+DISEASE","HasUnreadComments":true,"FirstUnreadCommentIndex":0,"LastComment":{"ID":44,"Index":0,"User":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"ImageUrl":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Client/Images/Mugshots/MJames.jpeg","Comment":"\u003cp\u003e\u003cem\u003eRay Thompson Dec 2013\u003c/em\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eor traction periostitus of the tibial tuberosity (sounds worse than it is)\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThis describes a condition in which the tibial attachment at the patellar tendon becomes inflamed and results in pain or discomfort. The causes are unclear but are probably caused by overuse. The condition primarily affects boys between 10 and 15 years but can happen with girls.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThere seems to be some evidence that growth spurts can put the patella tendon under stress due to uneven growth between the tendon and the leg bones. The separation is not usually complete but partial. This will however result in some inflammation, pain and soreness.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSYMPTOMS are pain at the attachment of the patellar tendon to the shine bone after exertion. Some swelling and tenderness at the tendon attachment may be evident. With severe cases an x-ray may reveal fragmentation of the shin bone.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eTREATMENT requires rest; the application of local heat and a heat retainer. Movements that trigger pain or discomfort should be avoided. In severe cases a doctor may recommend a plaster cast.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eOsgood-Schlatters disease heals spontaneously but can recur with overloading exercise during adolescence but will seldom occur after the leg is fully developed at 17 to 18 years of age.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eCoaches should always respond to young athletes with knee pain and explain to parents and carers the possibility of Osgood-Schlatters and what the causes can be and how treatment can be applied. Severe conditions should be referred to a GP. Advice on pain killers for adolescents should always be sought.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eIt is always essential that the young athlete knows that it is most likely related to some overuse and leg growth spurts BUT that it will go away in time and that normal training and competition can continue. Also, that some of the finest athletes will have suffered Osgood-Schlatters disease during their teen years.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe condition can be frustrating for young athletes as it tends to come and go over a period of months and sometimes a few years. Advice should always be sought in terms of leg strengthening exercises. Knee bending under loading should be avoided but isometric straight leg work can help to strengthen quads and calf muscles.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cfigure style=\"box-sizing: border-box; display: block; margin: 0px; caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Roboto, \u0026quot;Helvetica Neue\u0026quot;, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: auto; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust: auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration: none;\"\u003e\u003cimg src=\"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Client/Images/Cms/Screenshot%202019-07-05%20at%2016.37.27.png\" data-image=\"1\" style=\"box-sizing: border-box; border: 0px; vertical-align: middle; max-width: 100%;\"\u003e\u003c/figure\u003e","CreationTime":"05 July 2019 16:51","IsEdited":false,"EditTime":null,"InReplyTo":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"IsDeleted":false,"DeleteReason":null,"DeletedBy":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"LikeCount":0,"LikesDescription":"","Likes":[],"LikedByMe":false,"HasBeenRead":false,"Replies":[],"CanEdit":false,"CanModerate":false,"CanReply":false},"CanAdmin":false},{"ID":115,"Name":"The 4 Second Rule","Creator":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"CreationTime":"05/07/2019 16:50","CommentCount":1,"Tags":[],"IsPinned":false,"IsLocked":true,"URL":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Cms/Spaces/TRAINING/Training+Advice/The+4+Second+Rule","HasUnreadComments":true,"FirstUnreadCommentIndex":0,"LastComment":{"ID":43,"Index":0,"User":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"ImageUrl":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Client/Images/Mugshots/MJames.jpeg","Comment":"\u003cp\u003e\u003cem\u003eRay Thompson Sept 2010\u003c/em\u003e\u003cbr\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eFrank Horwill founder of the British Milers Club claims that race times can bepredicted using what he calls ‘the 4 second rule’. The rule applies to middle distanceevents and relates to potential times. The rule applied to female athletes is 5 seconds.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eHe states that athletes run 4 secs a lap slower for every distance they move up and it also applies when moving down.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eExamples are as follows:\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eA male runner who can run a lap in 56 secs and applying the 4 second rule should with appropriate training be capable of running 800m in a time of 2 mins.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eA potential time for 1500m, again with appropriate training should see a time of 4 mins. This will show as 3. 3/4 laps at 64 secs per lap. This equates as 3 x 64 secs + 3/4 of a lap at 48 secs giving a total time of 4 mins.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eFor 3K lap times would be 68secs and 5K, 72 secs and 10k, 76 secs.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eHe does qualify this with the assertion that it does apply to athletes with times of 3.40 for 1500m for males and 4 mins for 1500m for females. These are quality times and for less able athletes there is a need for some adjustment. Maybe, 5secs or 6 secs per lap.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe benefit of this for the coach and athlete is that setting times for repetitions can be justified and will often provide a psychological boost for athletes who can be asked to suggest target times for specific repetitions.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAn example would be for a female athlete with a 1550 time of say 5 mins 30 secs could be asked to aim for 2 mins 12 secs or better for a 5 X 600m, 3 mins recovery session.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAn easy conversion is to take the 1500m time and estimate what this would be for say 100m. In this case it equates to 22secs per 100m or 88 secs per lap. Therefore the 600m time would be 88+44 = 2 mins 12 secs.\u003c/p\u003e","CreationTime":"05 July 2019 16:50","IsEdited":false,"EditTime":null,"InReplyTo":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"IsDeleted":false,"DeleteReason":null,"DeletedBy":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"LikeCount":0,"LikesDescription":"","Likes":[],"LikedByMe":false,"HasBeenRead":false,"Replies":[],"CanEdit":false,"CanModerate":false,"CanReply":false},"CanAdmin":false},{"ID":114,"Name":"The Purpose of Training","Creator":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"CreationTime":"05/07/2019 16:50","CommentCount":1,"Tags":[],"IsPinned":false,"IsLocked":true,"URL":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Cms/Spaces/TRAINING/Training+Advice/The+Purpose+of+Training","HasUnreadComments":true,"FirstUnreadCommentIndex":0,"LastComment":{"ID":42,"Index":0,"User":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"ImageUrl":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Client/Images/Mugshots/MJames.jpeg","Comment":"\u003cp\u003eTraining for endurance is designed to adapt the body to the stress of running, over distance, at an increasing pace. Simple. Well, not quite.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eFor the body to adapt requires an increase in the VO2 max. This is an acronym that is represented by a figure and stands for the ‘maximum amount of oxygen that can be removed from circulating blood and used by the working tissues during a specified period’.(See Training Distance Runners by Martin and Coe)\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe physiology associated with this procedure is quite complicated, but in simple terms physical effort that drives up the heart rate for extended periods has the effect of adapting the body to learn to live with the associated physical stress. Mental stress is another matter. That means dealing with the discomfort that comes with strong physical effort.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSo, the essence of any training session, apart from running skill work and having a chat, isto get the heart rate up to or near its’ ventilatory threshold for as long as possible.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eTraining sessions with short recovery periods allows for distance to be performed, but with the heart rate kept as high as possible. There is as argument that longer recovery periods can result in allowing for a higher heart rate to be endured, but this will require more extended sessions or that with a longer recovery, the athlete will work harder. In the end it will be the coach’s preference based on experience and knowledge of the physiology associated with distance running It may also be what an individual athlete thinks works best for them. In the end, training will be judged by results and performance and that can be either competition, or progression in training sessions.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eLonger distance slower running provides what is called an aerobic platform with a modest heart rate from which to launch sessions that serve to increase the VO2 max.\u003c/p\u003e","CreationTime":"05 July 2019 16:50","IsEdited":false,"EditTime":null,"InReplyTo":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"IsDeleted":false,"DeleteReason":null,"DeletedBy":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"LikeCount":0,"LikesDescription":"","Likes":[],"LikedByMe":false,"HasBeenRead":false,"Replies":[],"CanEdit":false,"CanModerate":false,"CanReply":false},"CanAdmin":false},{"ID":113,"Name":"The Story of Lactic Acid","Creator":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"CreationTime":"05/07/2019 16:50","CommentCount":1,"Tags":[],"IsPinned":false,"IsLocked":true,"URL":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Cms/Spaces/TRAINING/Training+Advice/The+Story+of+Lactic+Acid","HasUnreadComments":true,"FirstUnreadCommentIndex":0,"LastComment":{"ID":41,"Index":0,"User":{"ID":2,"Name":"Mary James"},"ImageUrl":"https://www.myclubhouse.co.uk/SLH/Client/Images/Mugshots/MJames.jpeg","Comment":"\u003cp\u003eLactic acid was first discovered in 1780 in sour milk. Now known as the PH of body fluid.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003ePYRUVIC acid, a product of GLYCOLYSIS – a metabolic pathway – is converted into lactate when oxygen is not supplied fast enough to meet the need of muscle cells. With intense exercise the muscle cells demand for energy, ATP, is too immediate to wait for oxygen from the ventilatory system. This results in an accumulation of lactate in the muscles and blood.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe discovery in 1920 that lactic acid is produced during fatiguing muscle contractions has been seen as a factor in the exhaustion that accompanies heavy physical exertion.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWhen anaerobic glycolysis is called up as the predominant pathway, in addition to lactate, and more important in the acid base balance are hydrogen ions – a major threat. This combination DECREASES muscle PH (acid balance) results in metabolic acidosis and intimately intense fatigue.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWhile lactate, hydrogen and other metabolites contribute, lactate is used by physiologists and coaches to determine the effects of training regimes. This use of lactate is unfairly labelled as the main culprit in creating intense fatigue.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eLactate is often blamed for what is called ‘muscle burn’ when the real cause isthe increase in muscle temperature that results from heavy physical exertion. Also, muscle soreness is put down to excess lactic acid. Muscle and blood lactic pooling goes after 30/60 mins while soreness often takes 12/24 hours to appear and five to seven days to completely go away. This soreness results from microscopic tears in muscle fibre and is a delayed biochemical injury.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eRather that lactates being a waste product it does in effect provide fuel for the heart and allows the liver to make new glucose that converts to glycogen that fuels muscle action so that exercise can continue.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eLactate at modest exercise disperses gradually but with increasing effort that calls up anaerobic glycolysis, lactate removal lags and accumulates in muscle and blood.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThis over accumulation of lactate is a physiological marker and is called the lactate or acidosis threshold. With endurance training comes body adaption to lactate accumulation and removal. (Bucket analogy)\u003c/p\u003e","CreationTime":"05 July 2019 16:50","IsEdited":false,"EditTime":null,"InReplyTo":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"IsDeleted":false,"DeleteReason":null,"DeletedBy":{"ID":null,"Name":null},"LikeCount":0,"LikesDescription":"","Likes":[],"LikedByMe":false,"HasBeenRead":false,"Replies":[],"CanEdit":false,"CanModerate":false,"CanReply":false},"CanAdmin":false}],"ParentForumID":null,"ParentForumName":null,"ParentForumURL":null,"CanCreateTopic":false,"CanCreateSubForum":false,"CanDelete":false}